Μαύρη Βίβλος του Κομμουνισμού: Α1. ΠΑΡΑΔΟΞΑ ΚΑΙ ΠΑΡΕΞΗΓΗΣΕΙΣ ΤΟΥ ΟΚΤΩΒΡΙΟΥ


ΠΡΩΤΟ ΜΕΡΟΣ- ΕΝΑ ΚΡΑΤΟΣ ΕΝΑΝΤΙΟΝ ΤΟY ΛΑΟΥ ΤΟΥ
Πράξεις βίας, καταστολής, τρομοκρατίας στη Σοβιετική Ένωση
Nicolas Werth

«Με την πτώση του κομμουνισμού, η αναγκαιότητα να αποδειχτεί ο “ιστορικά αναπόφευκτος” χαρακτήρας της Μεγάλης Σοσιαλιστικής Επανάστασης του Οκτώβρη εξαφανίστηκε. Το 1917 μπορούσε επιτέλους να γίνει ένα “φυσιολογικό” ιστορικό αντικείμενο. Δυστυχώς, ούτε οι ιστορικοί ούτε, προπαντός, η κοινωνία μας είναι έτοιμοι να διαρρήξουν τη σχέση τους με τον θεμελιώδη μύθο του έτους μηδέν, του έτους όπου όλα επέπρωτο να αρχίσουν: η ευτυχία ή η δυστυχία του ρωσικού λαού».

Τα λόγια αυτά ενός σύγχρονου Ρώσου ιστορικού περιγράφουν μιαν εμμονή: ογδόντα χρόνια μετά το γεγονός, η «μάχη για την εξιστόρηση» του 1917 εξακολουθεί.

Για μια πρώτη ιστορική σχολή που θα μπορούσε να την ορίσει κανείς ως «φιλελεύθερη», η Οκτωβριανή Επανάσταση δεν υπήρξε παρά ένα στρατιωτικό πραξικόπημα που επιβλήθηκε δια της βίας σε μια παθητική κοινωνία, ως αποτέλεσμα μιας επιδέξιας συνωμοσίας που καθοδηγήθηκε από μια χούφτα πειθαρχημένων και κυνικών φανατικών, στερημένων από κάθε πραγματική υποστήριξη στη χώρα. Σήμερα, η ολότητα σχεδόν των Ρώσων ιστορικών, καθώς και οι διευθυντικές και καλλιεργημένες ελίτ της μετακομμουνιστικής Ρωσίας, έχουν ενστερνισθεί τη φιλελεύθερη ερμηνεία. Στερημένη από οποιοδήποτε κοινωνικό και ιστορικό βάθος, η επανάσταση του Οκτωβρίου του 1917 επαναγιγνώσκεται ως ένα ατύχημα που εκτροχίασε από τη φυσιολογική της πορεία την προεπαναστατική Ρωσία μια Ρωσία πλούσια, εργατική και σε καλό δρόμο προς τη δημοκρατία. Continue reading «Μαύρη Βίβλος του Κομμουνισμού: Α1. ΠΑΡΑΔΟΞΑ ΚΑΙ ΠΑΡΕΞΗΓΗΣΕΙΣ ΤΟΥ ΟΚΤΩΒΡΙΟΥ»

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Struggling with the Problem of Terror in Early 1950s China


Jeremy Brown

What is the value of human life? Is terror ever justifiable? Scholars who study the first four years of the People ‘s Republic of China (PRC) cannot avoid these fundamental questions. Since the 1950s, Western scholarship on the early years of the PRC has asserted that terror, public executions, and coercion were central to the new regime‘s consolidation of power. However, a close reading of how academics treat the issue of terror suggests that we actually know quite little about the human costs and repercussions of state violence in early 1950s China. It also reveals that scholars have trouble dealing with the question of terror.

In 1955, Yale University Press published Richard L. Walker‘s China Under Communism: The First Five Years. The militantly anti-communist book portrays China as a repressive totalitarian society and tackles the problem of state brutality head-on in chapter nine, entitled   Terror.  Walker is especially damning of events in 1951, the year of the   campaign to suppress counterrevolutionaries.  In his typically blunt tone, Walker characterizes 1951 as a   calculated year of violence, which spread terror over the Chinese mainland, laid the basis for subsequent consolidation of control, and did much to cripple any will, which the Chinese people might have to resist (215). Continue reading «Struggling with the Problem of Terror in Early 1950s China»

Μνημόνιο (τμήμα)του Dr. Kiselev της 25ης Μαρτίου 1932 για τις συνθήκες ζωής και εργασίας στα Κολχοζ


Μετάφραση

Top Secret

TO THE HEAD OF THE WESTERN SIBERIA REGIONAL BOARD OF HEALTH Comrade TRAKMAN.

Copy to POKROV REGIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE ALL-UNION COMMUNIST PARTY (Bosheviks), REGIONAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE and RUSSIAN COMMUNIST LEAGUE

MEMORANDUM

On the instructions of the Regional Committee of the All- Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) issued to Kiselev on 24 March 1932 on the subject of finding hunger-caused illness, several families of the Kartsovskii village soviet were observed and the following was found: as stated by soviet chairman Comrade Sukhanov and secretary of the First Party Organization Comrade Medvedev, a series of written and oral statements from the kolkhozniks of this village, that they and their families suffer from starvation, were received.

The statements were made by the following people: Gorokhova Mariia, Pautova Malan’ia, Rogozina Irina, Logacheva Ustin’ia, and others. The soviet chairman, the secretary of the First Party Organization and other communists substantiate the fact that the kolkhozniks use animals that have died as food. Continue reading «Μνημόνιο (τμήμα)του Dr. Kiselev της 25ης Μαρτίου 1932 για τις συνθήκες ζωής και εργασίας στα Κολχοζ»

USSR: Gulag TIME (in partnership with CNN) Posted Monday, Feb. 28, 1949


At Lake Success one day last week, Assistant Secretary of State Willard Thorp* announced that, by official U.S. estimate, Russia keeps between eight and 14 million people in slave labor camps. Semen Tsarapkin, Russia’s representative to ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council), coolly ignored the charge; no one else seemed to care either. The world had read too many statistics of death and misery.

Slim Blue Book. Next day the A.F.L., a non-governmental consultant to U.N., used a different method to get the facts across. It submitted a slim, blue-covered booklet containing the testimony of twelve men & women who had survived Russian slave labor camps. To read and interpret their story, the A.F.L. picked a veteran German socialist, tiny Toni Sender, whose renowned taunts of Nazi bigwigs had earned her the epithet «Mrs. Big Mouth.» Among the case histories she had gathered: Continue reading «USSR: Gulag TIME (in partnership with CNN) Posted Monday, Feb. 28, 1949»

USSR: Ordinary People and the Regime (ΕΣΣΔ: Κοινή Γνώμη και το καθεστώς)


Secret police and party reports from the Soviet Union of the thirties seem to have something fascinating for historians. The letters «NKVD» or «OGPU» appearing on archival files still anticipate sensational revelations and insights fundamentally correcting our prevailing views. Often enough, after a first feverish glimpse into the files, top-secret documents, which had been hidden for sixty years, turn out to contain banalities. Nevertheless, there can be exciting information, too. Let’s have a look at what Sarah Davies could extract from NKVD sources about popular opinion in Stalin’s Russia.

Davies’ book, based on her Oxford doctoral dissertation (1994), focuses on a formative period of Soviet history. The years 1934-41 witnessed both the Great Retreat from the cultural revolution to tradition and stability and the Great Terror, beginning after the murder of Kirov in December 1934. The study seeks to find out how ordinary people responded to the Great Retreat and the Terror. What was the effect of propaganda and repression? Were people keeping silent or was there any significant dissonant popular opinion in Stalin’s Russia? Continue reading «USSR: Ordinary People and the Regime (ΕΣΣΔ: Κοινή Γνώμη και το καθεστώς)»

Γράμμα(τμήμα) της 9ης Απριλίου 1932 απο Feigin προς Ordzhonikidze (τσιράκι του Στάλιν) σχετικά με τις συνθήκες στα κολχοζ.


Η μετάφρασή του στα αγγλικά.

Letter from Feigin

Dear Sergo [Ordzhonikidze],

I’m writing you from Novosibirsk. I have driven around several collective farms [kolkhozes] and consider it necessary to inform you about a few items. I was in various kolkhozes–not productive and relatively unproductive ones, but everywhere there was only one sight–that of a huge shortage of seed, famine, and extreme emaciation of livestock.

In the kolkhozes which I observed I attempted to learn how much the livestock had diminished in comparison with the years 1927-28. It turns out that kolkhoz Ziuzia has 507 milch cows at present while there were 2000 in ’28; kolkhoz Ust’-Tandovskii collectively and individually has 203 head, earlier they had more than 600; kolkhoz Kruglo-Ozernyi at present has 418 head of beef cattle and 50 held by kolkhozniks, in 1928 there were 1800 head; kolkhoz Goldoba collectively and individually has 275 head, in 1929 there were 1000 plus head, this kolkhoz now has 350 sheep, in 1929 there were 1500. Approximately the same correlations were found also in the kolkhozes Ol’gino and Novo-Spasski. Continue reading «Γράμμα(τμήμα) της 9ης Απριλίου 1932 απο Feigin προς Ordzhonikidze (τσιράκι του Στάλιν) σχετικά με τις συνθήκες στα κολχοζ.»

Οι συνεχείς διασπάσεις και τα αδιέξοδα της Ελληνικής Αριστεράς



• 1956 Διασπάται το ΚΚΕ και δημιουργείται η ΚΟΕ
• 1967 Διασπάται η ΚΟΕ και δημιουργείται η ΟΜΛΕ
• 1968 Δημιουργείται το ΚΚΕ εσωτ από τη μεγάλη διάσπαση του ΚΚΕ
• 1974 Ιδρύεται η ΟΚΔΕ που αντλεί την ιστορική της ρίζα στη διάσπαση του 1928 του ΚΚΕ

Continue reading «Οι συνεχείς διασπάσεις και τα αδιέξοδα της Ελληνικής Αριστεράς»